Superheterodyne receiver block diagram

The modulation of the IF carrier signal is same as that of the original carrier signal and it has a fixed frequency of kHz which is amplified by one or more stages of amplification. The fixed frequency simplifies optimization of the IF amplifier. The lower harmonic still consists of the carrier and the information we want. In this way it is possible to see the overall operation of the receiver.

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Knowing this, we know, without a doubt, that the output from the mixer will consist of two main products. Block diagram of a basic superheterodyne radio receiver. With the older spark gap transmitters then in use, the Morse code signal consisted of short bursts of a carrier wave.

File:Superheterodyne receiver block diagram 2.svg

The generated audio signal is then applied to the AF amplifier to increase the audio frequency level of the signal and to provide enough gain to drive the speaker or headphones. Eugenii Katz homepage, Hebrew Univ. Therefore, what is required is a way to lower the radio frequency to one that is manageable by a silicon transistor, and they managed a way to do this using a process known as mixing.

Local oscillator is tuned to a frequency that may be either higher or lower than the incoming frequency by an amount equal to the IF frequency.

Superheterodyne Receiver | Block Diagram | Electronics Notes

If you have been playing with crystal radiosthen you might already have come across this term where radio engineers refer to a germanium diode as a detector. Retrieved 19 January The ability of a receiver to reject interfering signals at the image frequency is measured by the image rejection ratio.

Thus idea of the superheterodyne receiver is to reduce the high frequency radio components of the incoming carrier to a fairly low, fixed value such as to be processed at the different stages of the receiver, and also to provide good stability, gain and proper selectivity and fidelity. A receiver with inadequate filtering at its input will pick up signals at two different frequencies simultaneously: Explain the working of a superheterodyne receiver with the help of a neat block diagram.

The IF block, is the central stage, consisting of high-gain amplifier stages that amplify within a narrow frequency range.

The suerheterodyne stage eliminates one of the sidebands which is still present and separates the RF from the audio components of the other sideband. In order to avoid interference to receivers, licensing authorities will avoid assigning common IF frequencies to transmitting stations. This may be obtained using one or more dual tuned IF transformers, a quartz crystal filteror a multipole ceramic crystal filter. Since the oscillator frequency follows the carrier frequency of the incoming radio signal, it just so happens that the difference of the two frequencies is always the same irrespective of which station is tuned.

The audio frequency AF block is responsible for amplifying the weak AF sulerheterodyne by increasing its amplitude.

The image frequency results in two stations being diagrm at the same time, thus producing interference. Some superhet radios have more than one frequency conversion, and other areas of additional circuitry to provide the required levels of performance.

Sensitivity to the image frequency can be minimised only by 1 a filter that precedes the mixer or 2 a more complex mixer circuit [21] that suppresses the image. Either of these impurities spreads some of the signal's energy into sideband frequencies. I have kept the theory very simple and at introductory level for beginners, however at some point there will be another article taking fiagram further.

Superheterodyne Radio Receiver Block Diagram

Join them; it only takes a minute. Pages — discuss image rejection and include an RF filter design that puts transmission zeros at both the local oscillator frequency and the unwanted image frequency. The diagram above shows a very basic version of the superhet or superheterodyne receiver.

Retrieved 22 October Although the receiverr of the superhet design are overwhelming, we note a few drawbacks that need to be bloock in practice. Although more complicated receivers can be made, the basic circuit is widely used — further blocks can add improved performance or additional functionality and their operation within the whole receiver is normally easy to determine once the basic block diagram is understood.

The Superheterodyne Receiver 2nd ed. Using this technique, a small number of triodes could be made to do the work that formerly required dozens of triodes.

There is a second frequency conversion making a triple-conversion receiver that mixes the However, it was less popular when commercial radio broadcasting began in the s, mostly due to the need for an extra tube for the oscillatorthe generally higher cost of the receiver, and the level of technical skill required to operate it.

Show the waveforms at the output of each block. In that situation, the RF amplifier must be tuned so the IF amplifier does not see two stations at the same time. The superheteroryne element in the superheterodyne receiver block diagram is shown as an audio amplifier, although this could be any form of circuit block that is used to process or amplified the demodulated signal.

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